The effectiveness of a European speed limit versus an international bunker levy to reduce CO2 emissions from container shipping.
1. A tax can be efficient only at high level of taxation and on market with specific characteristics.
2. A speed limit might be counter-productive at a global scale (more emissions than initally).
3. A speed limit in European waters will increase transportation costs for Short sea shipping and reduces transfer of trade from road to sea (high share of incompressible time).
4. Confirm that if for SOX, NOX… a regional policy might make sense but not for CO2 for which the global impact should be looked at = Call for an international agreement (IMO rather than EU) if we want to imply a change in ship-owners behaviour.
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